– sometimes referred to as situational depression – are a group of conditions that may occur when there is difficulty coping with a stressful life event. This can include death, divorce or any event that overwhelms a person. Everyone encounters stress at some point or another, but some people may have more trouble coping.
The inability to adjust to a situation or happening can cause one or more severe psychological and sometimes physical symptoms. There are six types of adjustment disorders, and each has its own distinct symptoms. Adjustment disorders can affect both adults and children.
Adjustment disorder with depressed mood: Expresses symptoms of depression along with loss of self-esteem, lack of motivation and feeling very down.
Adjustment disorder with anxious mood: Symptoms include anxiety, excessive worry, feeling overwhelmed. Memory and concentration are affected negatively. Children with this disorder usually suffer with separation anxiety.
Adjustment disorder with mixed anxiety and depressed mood: The symptoms present a combination of depression and anxiety.
Adjustment disorder with disturbance of conduct: The dominant symptoms are behaviour’s that break the societal norms or the rights of others such as substance abuse, outbursts of anger, and revenge seeking.
Adjustment disorder mixed disturbance of conduct and emotions: The symptoms prevalent in this type of adjustment disorder include emotional distress and disturbances of conduct.
Adjustment disorder unspecified: This type of adjustment disorder displays dysfunctional responses to major life events that do not meet the criteria for other subtypes of adjustment disorder
The mental symptoms of adjustment disorders can include:
|• Rebellious or impulsive actions
• Loss of self-esteem
• Feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or being trapped
• Withdrawn attitude
• Lack of concentration
• Suicidal thoughts
Stress in teenagers and young adults may be triggered by and include:
|· Family problems or conflict
· School problems
· Sexuality issues
The primary aim of treatment for adjustment disorder is to relieve symptoms and to help people achieve a level of normalcy and function again. Suggested treatments include individual psychotherapy, family therapy and behavioural therapy.